According to the Lore about the origins of the Runes, they are clearly placed with Odhinn, the primary deity of the Aesir, the most human-like of the Northern tradition Gods. The story of his gaining the runes comes from a literary work known as the Havamal (The sayings of the High One) which relates the story. I highly recommend reading a translation of the Havamal for you, as I will relate a shorter version of the story here.
According to story, Odhinn took his speak, and impaled himself upon Yggdrasil, the World Tree. For 9 days and 9 nights, without food or water, Odhinn hung from Yggdrasil, “a sacrifice of himself, to himself” (as many of the human offerings to Odhinn were hung from a tree in a similar manner). At the end of the 9th night, Odhinn perceived the runes at the roots of Yggdrasil, and reached out, grabbed them, falling from the tree as he did so.
The High One (presumably Odhinn) goes on to explain some of the techniques of working with Runes, and also the 18 spells he knows made of Runes, which cover a number of maladies and situations that might be experienced. While many other authors have theorized runes to these sections, or even created their own Futhark based upon this section, it is my suppositions that these are independent spells that are worked with combinations of runes.
It is from this source that all runic knowledge is given, especially the more esoteric or magical runic knowledge and practices, for all the Futharks.